Introduction to the Curve-Line System

Voynich Manuscript

Abstract

This paper proposes a new pattern in the text of the Voynich Manuscript named the “Curve-Line System” (CLS). This pattern is fundamentally based on shapes of individual glyphs but also informs the structure of words. The hypotheses of the system are statistically tested by two independent people to judge their significance. It is also compared to existing word structure paradigms. The results suggest that the shapes of glyphs affect their placement in a word, the Curve-Line System is an  intentional feature of the text design, and the text of the Voynich Manuscript is a highly artificial system.

Encipherment process (take 1)

Voynich Manuscript

According to my latest cipher theory, this is a general estimate of what the encipherment process could be:

  1. (Optional) Prepare your plaintext by removing some letters. Helps to save time.
  2. (Optional) Split into blocks of equal length. Helps to reduce errors.
  3. Convert each letter into a number with simple substitution.
  4. Do some mathemagics to the numbers with Pascal’s Triangle (exact details are trade secret). You now have Voynichese! If you split the plaintext into blocks, each one now corresponds to a line of ciphertext. But some may have ended up with wildly different lengths, so…
  5. (Optional) Pad out lines with filler at the beginning or end to make them equal length. Helps to make the result look nicer and harder to decipher.

Pascal’s Triangle and the Voynich Manuscript

Voynich Manuscript

I’ve been toying with the idea of using Pascal’s Triangle to make a cipher that results in similar statistics to the text “system” of the Voynich Manuscript. My concepts are premature but I’m pleased to note that so far I’ve devised something (relatively) simple with short words, binomial word lengths, strong word structure, lines as semantic units, lack of repeated sequences, and word-adjacent repetition. I haven’t had the time to really dig in and quantify any of these and compare with the VMS text but on first glance it appears fairly close.

Example

For example, here is a ciphered phrase using an early version of the cipher and EVA transcription: (deliberately seeded to end in -n all the time)

chiain chiin dain choiin shoin shoiin chiiin chiin shn dain chiiin diin in.

Here is the same phrase again:

potir chiin dain shoedy shoin shoiin chols sheey toy chddy chiiin ooli aiim.

Here is the same phrase yet again:

fodar choiin shn sheey diiin diin choli shoedy chedy ty choin shels daiim.

Here is the same phrase without vowels:

shedy shoey sheyi shoiin choiin chtchar cheli shoyiiim.

Features

Interesting things about my system (so far):

  • Word context is highly important and affects all content.
  • The same plaintext sequence is almost guaranteed to end up completely different every time it is included. This applies to individual words too. For a word of length enciphered twice, the probability that its ciphered versions will match is approximately 1/(2^18n), with a few caveats here and there. I wish WordPress could embed formulae easily (can someone please tell me how in the comments below?).
  • Multiple appearances of the same ciphertext sequence are almost guaranteed to be completely unrelated. This applies to individual words and similar sequences like Timm Pairs. The probability is similar to the one mentioned above. However, if they are at the very beginning or end of lines they might be a bit related. If they are labels (i.e. enciphered outside a line) they become much more similar.
  • Blank spaces in words are meaningful. What do I mean by this? All words actually store 10 letters of information, but one letter of the alphabet is an invisible glyph (we’ll call it “_”), giving the appearance of different word lengths. For example (not a real example), fodar might actually be f _ _ o d _ a _ _ r. The system allows us to unambiguously reconstruct the original ten letter sequence with ease. This allows words to store more information than they would suggest.
  • Similar words that appear next to each other (Bad Romance sequences) are an unintended side effect. They store just as much information as any other sequence because of their context.
  • It allows for a total of 9^4=6561 unique words, though this can be adjusted with some tricks and workarounds. Stolfi counted a total of 6525 unique words in the Voynich Manuscript.
  • If this was confirmed to be the system behind the Voynich Manuscript’s text, I would still have very little idea of how to decipher it.
  • Update: At certain points you could pack filler at the beginning or end of a line to make them equal length and make the system a bit more secure. In the Voynich Manuscript itself, some see evidence of meaningless filler material at the beginning or end of some lines.
  • Update 2: It also accounts for the findings that the first two letters of each word are more predictable than the rest, and that there is some mild correlation between the end of one word and the start of the next.

f76v/f77r Timm Pair

Voynich Manuscript

If you didn’t know, Timm Pairs* are sets of two phrases in the Voynich Manuscript that are almost identical, and not Bad Romance sequences**. Timm himself uses them as evidence of a hoax. Nick Pelling opines that nearby Timm Pairs could be the same plaintext sequence encoded slightly differently by the same system. There’s no telling what they are, if they are anything at all.

That said, I’m not here to discuss them, just present an interesting one.

f76v begins:

polarar okor

f77r begins:

poldarairol qokol

At first glance they don’t look that similar, and strictly speaking these phrases are not close to each other. What caught my attention is that almost no other folio pairs begin this similarly, not to mention two folios that (currently) face each other. As for the phrase similarity, f77r could be seen as a spruced up version of f76v’s beginning.

f76v: p-o-l-d-a-r-a-i-r-o-l / q-o-k-o-r

f77r: p-o-l-d-a-r-a-i-r-o-l / q-o-k-o-l

As for what this means (if anything), I don’t know. Just putting it out there. I thought that perhaps if I looked at similar instances, the transformations between them could lead to insights into the word structures. I haven’t been through them thoroughly but here are some I have found since then:

  • f2v begins “kooiin”, f3v begins “koaiin”, f4v begins “pchooiin”. Oddly, f29v also begins”kooiin”.
  • f54r and f55r both start with “podaiin”. (note: this also begins paragraphs in f49r and f85r1)
  • f68v3 begins “tchedy chepchy”. f68v2 begins “teeody shcthey”. These two folios face each other on a large fold-out section. Although these seem dissimilar, they have exactly the same curve-line pattern which interests me.
  • One of the starred paragraphs on f103r begins “polarar lshedy qotolaiin”. Another on f111v begins “polarar okshey qokain”.

Feel free to share your thoughts in the comments below!

*Named after Torsten Timm but not discovered by him, serving as an example of Stigler’s law of eponymy. The term is a neologism by Pelling, but given that there’s nothing else to call them, I use it too.

**Bad Romance sequences are the common, repetitive, information-poor phrases peppered through the manuscript’s text like “qokedy qokedy qokeedy qokey” or “dain daiin okaiin”. This is my neologism since I’m not aware of any other name for these. They are named after the Lady Gaga song Bad Romance which is full of the phrase “ra ra-a-a-a roma roma-ma gaga ooh lala”. They are similar to, but perhaps not the same as, what David Jackson calls “epizeuxis”.

Review of “A Logical Consideration of the Voynich Manuscript” by David Jackson

Voynich Manuscript

Can we prove what the Voynich Manuscript is? Well, we need to take that first step sooner or later.

With ROS (Robot Operating System) being much less co-operative than I had envisioned, I haven’t had time at all to investigate the Voynich Manuscript as much as I had promised myself and others. That said, I looked at David Jackson’s interesting essay A Logical Consideration of the Voynich Manuscript where he evaluates all the evidence out there and comes to some conclusions.

Here are my thoughts (and in writing them, I have created more questions to consider).

Review of the Voynich Manuscript transcription file

Voynich Manuscript

With updated Job’s Voynichese and OCR project, I thought a good place to start is an informal review of the digital transcription file of the Voynich Manuscript. I am referring to Stolfi’s “Interlinear” txt file from 5 December 1998 based on work by Landini, Grove, Friedman, Takahashi, D’Imperio, Currier, Reeds, Guillogly and Guy. It’s what everyone uses, including academic researchers. The quality of any statistical investigation rests on the quality of the transcription, which I think can be improved.

Proposed flag of Chad / Drapeau proposé du Tchad / علم مقترح لتشاد

Flags

This design is part of my 2009 flag proposal series (the flag designs from my old site with the most hits and ratings).

Cette conception fait partie de ma série de propositions de drapeau 2009 (les conceptions de drapeau de mon ancien site avec le plus de hits et de notes).

هذا التصميم جزء من سلسلة مقترحات العلم الخاصة بي لعام 2009 (تصميمات العلم من موقعي القديم مع أكبر عدد من النتائج والتقييمات).

Note: My choice of design does not reflect my political views.

Remarque: mon choix de conception ne reflète pas mes opinions politiques.

ملاحظة: خياري للتصميم لا يعكس آرائي السياسية.

The current design / La situation présente / الوضع الحالي

Current flag of Chad / Drapeau actuel du Tchad / علم تشاد الحالي

Current flag of Romania / Drapeau actuel de la Roumanie / علم رومانيا الحالي

The flag of Chad is almost identical to the flag of Romania. This similarity is so close that Chad once asked the United Nations to inspect the issue. However, Romania pointed out that their flag is older, so Chad should be the one to change to make it more distinct. Therefore, here is my proposal.

Le drapeau du Tchad est presque identique au drapeau de la Roumanie. Cette similitude est si proche que le Tchad a demandé une fois aux Nations Unies de se pencher sur la question. Cependant, la Roumanie a souligné que son drapeau est plus ancien, le Tchad devrait donc être celui à changer pour le rendre plus distinct. Ainsi, je présente ma proposition ici.

علم تشاد مطابق تقريبًا لعلم رومانيا. هذا التشابه قريب جدًا لدرجة أن تشاد طلبت من الأمم المتحدة ذات مرة فحص القضية. ومع ذلك ، أشارت رومانيا إلى أن علمها أقدم ، لذلك يجب أن تكون تشاد هي الدولة التي يجب تغييرها لجعلها أكثر تميزًا. لذلك ، هذا هو اقتراحي.

My proposal / Ma proposition / اقتراحي

Flag proposal for Chad I made in 2009.

Proposed flag of Chad / Drapeau proposé du Tchad / علم مقترح لتشاد

First off, this design is simple enough to be remembered by a child, yet distinctive enough to be identified at a distance.

Tout d’abord, cette conception est assez simple pour être mémorisée par un enfant, mais suffisamment distinctive pour être identifiée à distance.

أولاً ، هذا التصميم بسيط بما يكفي ليتذكره الطفل ، ولكنه مميز بما يكفي ليتم التعرف عليه عن بعد.

The overall layout represents the geography of Chad. In the south is fertile land, in the north is the Sahara Desert and in the west is Lake Chad, which is important to the country. The eight pointed star represents the sun, warmth, vitality and hope for a bright future. The eight points represent the eight directions, referring to the vast size of Chad. The location of the sun ensures its importance, as the left hand side will be last part of the flag to wear out.

La disposition générale représente la géographie du Tchad. Au sud se trouve des terres fertiles, au nord le désert du Sahara et à l’ouest le lac Tchad, qui est important pour le pays. L’étoile à huit branches représente le soleil, la chaleur, la vitalité et l’espoir d’un avenir radieux. Les huit points de l’étoile représentent les huit directions, faisant référence à la vaste étendue du Tchad. L’emplacement du soleil assure son importance, car le côté gauche sera la dernière partie du drapeau à s’user.

يمثل التصميم العام جغرافية تشاد. في الجنوب أرض خصبة ، وفي الشمال توجد الصحراء الكبرى وفي الغرب بحيرة تشاد ، وهي مهمة للبلاد. تمثل النجمة الثمانية الشمس والدفء والحيوية والأمل في مستقبل مشرق. النقاط الثماني تمثل الاتجاهات الثمانية ، في اشارة الى الحجم الشاسع لتشاد. يضمن موقع الشمس أهميتها ، حيث سيكون الجانب الأيسر هو الجزء الأخير من العلم الذي يتآكل.

Vector files available on request.

Fichiers vectoriels disponibles sur demande.

ملفات المتجهات متاحة عند الطلب.

Mock-ups of the proposed flag of Chad / Maquettes du drapeau proposé du Tchad / نماذج بالحجم الطبيعي لعلم تشاد المقترح

Mock-ups of the proposed flag of Chad / Maquettes du drapeau proposé du Tchad / نماذج بالحجم الطبيعي لعلم تشاد المقترح

Construction sheet of the proposed flag of Chad / Fiche de construction du drapeau proposé du Tchad / أبعاد علم تشاد المقترح

Construction sheet of the proposed flag of Chad / Fiche de construction du drapeau proposé du Tchad / أبعاد علم تشاد المقترح

Proposed flag of Mars

Flags

This design is part of my 2009 flag proposal series (the flag designs from my old site with the most hits and ratings).

The current design

Current flag of Mars

The current flag of Mars is trash. It’s a generic tricolour, the colours all clash, it’s completely unintuitive and the symbolism reflects only a particular vision of Mars’ future. One day we’ll put a flag there and the planet deserves a better design than this. Therefore, here is my proposal.

My proposal

Flag proposal for Mars I made in 2009.

Proposed flag of Mars

First off, this design is simple enough to be remembered by a child, yet distinctive enough to be identified at a distance.

The best symbolism is that which does not need to be said. So I won’t.

I will say that this is better than the current design in all the ways that matter: It’s original, the colours complement each other, it’s easily recognisable and the symbolism reflects Mars in any context.

Vector files available on request.

Mock-ups for the proposed flag of Mars

Mock-ups for the proposed flag of Mars

Construction sheet for the proposed flag of Mars

Construction sheet for the proposed flag of Mars

Proposed flag of Utah

Flags

This design is part of my 2009 flag proposal series (the flag designs from my old site with the most hits and ratings). Ever since I posted this design in 2009, I got some feedback and I’ve made an even better design for Utah which you can view here.

Note: My choice of design does not reflect my political views.

The current design

Current flag of Utah

Current flag of Utah

The current flag scored a 3.47/10.00 in NAVA’s North American flag survey, which makes it the fifteenth worst flag in North America. In 2019, the Utah House voted to solicit potential flag designs to replace the current flag.

My proposal

Flag proposal I made for Utah in 2009.

Proposed flag of Utah

First off, this design is simple enough to be remembered by a child, yet distinctive enough to be identified at a distance.

This design incorporates features of the current flag, the Mormon pioneer flag and the national flag. The overall layout and thirteen stripes are from the national flag. The colours are from the Mormon pioneer flag and the current flag of Utah. The golden circle is also retained from the current flag of Utah. This aids recognition, establishes continuity and suggests connections with Utah’s history and Mormon influence.

In the canton (top-left corner), the circle represents unity, the star represents the sun and the hexagon represents a beehive. The sun has twelve points, which is the number of perfection. The beehive is the official symbol of Utah and represents hard work, progress and community. The conjunction of the beehive cell inside the sun’s rays sends two messages: firstly that each individual has a chance to shine, and secondly that Utah’s positive influence is known well outside its borders.

The location of this emblem ensures its importance. When a flag wears out, the left hand side will be the last to remain. When it is not flying, that corner will be most visible part of the flag. When it is flying, the eye will be naturally attracted to that region as a starting point.

In terms of colours, the blue represents the sky, the white represents salt and the gold represents the warm sun. The colours are all present on the current flag, so any further symbolism they have can be carried over as well.

Vector files available on request.

Mock-ups of the proposed flag of Utah

Mock-ups of the proposed flag of Utah

Construction sheet of the proposed flag of Utah

Construction sheet of the proposed flag of Utah